Water erosion,Waterlogging,Soil water [pdf]


Water erosion :-


Water erosion

Water erosion is the removal of soil by water and transportation of the eroded materials away from the point of removal. Water action due to rain erodes the soil and causes activities like gully,stream and rill erosion leading to the downstream effects of flooding and sedimentation. The severity of water erosion is influenced by slope, soil type, soil water storage capacity, nature of the underlying rock, vegetation cover, and rainfall intensity and period.

This PDF Includes -  

1. Splash Erosio
2. Sheet Erosion
3. Rill Erosion   
4. Gully Erosion
5. Tunnel Erosion
6. Stream Bank Erosion
7. Coastal Erosion 


Download Water Erosion PDF


Waterlogging :-

Water logging

Waterlogging occurs when there is too much water in a plant’s root zone, it also occurs when excess irrigation over a field, which decreases the oxygen available to roots. Waterlogging can be a major constraint to plant growth and production and, under certain conditions, will cause plant death. This constraint may not be apparent until the whole soil profile is saturated and water appears on the surface. The department provides landholders with technical information and support on management options to recognise and reduce the impacts of waterlogging.


Soil water repellence :-


Soil water repellenceSoil water repellence is caused by an accumulation of waxy organic matter in the soil surface. It is worse in sandy textured topsoils. It results in uneven wetting of the soil profile and in poor, delayed and staggered emergence of crops, pastures and weeds and reduced productivity. Drier autumns, less cultivation, dry sowing and some seeding methods make the expression of water repellence worse. Management options include improved furrow sowing methods, soil wetting agents, one-off deep cultivation and clay spreading or clay delving.


Soil water :-



Soil waterDryland farming systems rely on the soil to store and release water and nutrients to meet crop demand. Soil water storage is dynamic and changes as a result of a balance between water inputs (rainfall, irrigation) and outputs including evaporation, plant transpiration, runoff, and deep drainage beyond the root zone.
Soil water managements ultimate aim is to improve the efficiency with which rainfall is converted into crop and pasture yield. This involves increasing the size of the bucket (amelioration) and optimising the production system for a given level of water storage (mitigation). Given that soil texture cannot be readily changed, soil water storage amelioration focuses on removing obstructions to water flow into the bucket and increasing the bucket size through rooting depth. In terms of mitigation, knowing how much plant available water is stored allows farmers to predict yields and manage inputs (fertiliser, pesticides) to maximise their profits.


Soil Acidity :-

Soil Acidity

Many soils, especially in humid regions, were acidic before they were ever farmed. Leaching of bases from soils and the acids produced during organic matter decomposition combined to make these soils naturally acidic. As soils were brought into production and organic matter was decomposed (mineralized), more acids were formed. In addition, all the commonly used N fertilizers are acidic—needing from 4 to 7 pounds of agricultural limestone to neutralize the acid formed from each pound of N applied to soils.


Soil nutrients :-

 Soil Acidity

Plant essential nutrients are required for profitable and sustainable agricultural production. An insufficient amount of any essential nutrient will lead to poor crop or pasture growth and limit production, reducing profit for growers. Similarly, because fertiliser prices represent the single largest farm input cost, overuse will reduce growers profits, and can lead to run-off and off-site impacts, such as leaching into waterways.


Soil salinity :-

                         

                               Soil salinity

The salinity of soil refers to the amount of salts in the soil and it can be estimated by measuring the electrical conductivity (EC) of an extracted soil solution. Soil salinity is the salt content in the soil; the process of increasing the salt content is known as salinization. Salts occur naturally within soils and water. Salination can be caused by natural processes such as mineral weathering or by the gradual withdrawal of an ocean.

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